Possible Early Intervention Strategies To Avoid Autism Brain
New research of University of Maryland suggests that this burden of connections begins early in mammalian development, when key neurons in the brain section known as the cerebral cortex begin to form their first brain circuits. By pinpointing where and when autism-related neural defects start in mice studies, the study results could lead to a stronger understanding of autism in humans -- including possible early intervention methods.
Researchers Outlined Their Findings To Incorporate Early Intervention Methods
"Our work proposes the neural pathology of autism reveals in the earliest cortical circuits, formed by a cell type called subplate neurons," said UMD Biology Professor and the senior study author Patrick Kanold. "Nobody has looked at evolving circuits this early, in this detailed creation, in the context of autism before. This is truly a new discovery and potentially represents a new paradigm for autism research."
Subplate neurons form the first circuit connections in the developing cerebral cortex -- the outer portion of the mammalian brain that controls perception, memory and, in humans, higher functions such as language and intellectual reasoning. As the brain progresses, the interconnected subplate neurons build a network of framework thought to support other neurons that grow at a later stage of development.
"The cortex is a vital region in the adult human brain that undergoes a complex, multi-tasking development process," said Daniel Nagode, a former postdoctoral researcher at UMD and lead author of the study. "Because the findings implicate the earliest stages of cortex circuit formation in a mouse model, they propose that the pathological changes leading to autism might start before birth in humans."
To study the bond between autism and subplate neuron development in mice, Kanold, Nagode and their colleagues began with a mouse model of autism. The model involves inducing mouse embryos with valproic acid (VPA) on 12th day of their 20-day gestation period by injecting the drug into the mother mouse.
VPA has a connection to autism in humans and induces autism-like cerebral and interactive abnormalities in mice. For example, normal newborn mouse pups will emit frequent, high-pitched noises when they are separated from their companion, but VPA-treated pups do not.
The Study Developed A Technique That Could Somehow Detect Early Autism Indicators
They use a technique called laser scanning photo stimulation to map out the connections between individual subplate neuron cells in the brains of each mouse pups. The first week after birth, the VPA-dosed mice showed some coverings of "hyperconnected" subplate neurons. In contrast, control mouse pups dosed with plain saline solution showed normal connections all over their cortical tissue.
Ten days after birth, the patches of hyperconnected subplate neurons had grown widespread and homogeneous in the VPA-dosed pups likened with the control pups. Because subplate neurons help lay the basis for cortical development in all mammalian brains, a copse of hyperconnected subplate neurons in the evolving cortex could result in permanent hyperconnections.
"Subplate neurons form critical developmental assemblies. If their early progress is reduced, later development of the cortex is also reduced," Kanold explained. "In a developing human fetus, this stage is a critical doorway, when subplate neuron circuits are abundant."
If the same context plays out in human brains, hyperconnections in the developing cortex could result in the neural pathologies experiential in human autism, Kanold said. In mice as well as in humans, the critical gap of time when subplate neurons develop is very short.
"Our results suggest that we might have to inhibit quite early to address autism," Kanold said. "The fetal brain is not just a small adult brain, and these subplate neurons are the major variance. There may be other developmental disorders we can tackle using this evidence."
Understanding The Battle Of An Aggressive Autistic Child
Sometimes Functional Behavioral Analysis can be useful: taking infos on what happened right before the behavior and also what happened right after might help you start to see what’s going on.
'NSR100' Brain Protein Could Reduce Autism Symptoms
Scientists found that people with autism have lower levels of a brain protein called nSR100, and to improve conditions of patients with autism, the protein levels can be increased.
Autism Treatment: Fecal Transplant Can Improve Autism Symptoms
Researchers revealed that fecal transplant can improve symptoms of autism like gastrointestinal problems. The said autism treatment can also improve other behavioral autism symptoms.
Robots Recruited To Teach Kids In China And Canada
In China and Canada, AI-driven robots have been recruited to help teach kids learn things in the classroom. The well-researched machines have been proving to be significant additions in the lives of young children.
ADHD Patients Have Delayed Brain Development, Affecting Their Emotions
Researchers from the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium have published a new study in the journal The Lancet Psychiatry showing that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have delayed brain development which affects their emotional responses. This study explains that ADHD should not be blamed on patients or parents since it is a matter of brain development.
MORE IN ITECHPOST
Link Building & Guest Posting Updates- 2020
Over the years, the importance of high-quality backlinks has only increased. What once used to be a quantitative measure, is now qualitatives in nature. In other words, the links are now scanned for the quality they bring in, along with the number of links.
How Do Personal Emergency Response Systems Work?
Personal emergency response systems, known as PERS for short, are systems that help people to raise the alarm and get immediate help when a medical or personal emergency occurs. They are ideal for older people and anyone with a mobility issue or an injury or illness that can cause falls.
New Lawsuit Alleges Fortnite Video Game Is as Addictive as Cocaine
Epic Games, creator of the popular Fortnite video game, has been hit with a new lawsuit that alleges the game is as "addictive as cocaine" and that Epic has targeted children with its marketing. The popular game is played by more than a quarter-billion people.
Netflix is Raising Prices, Here’s How it Now Compares to Other Streaming Services
Once a brand gains the trust and loyalty of its market, it is only logical that it attempts to flex its dominant muscle. Such is the tale that fits the recent price hike coming from the stable of Netflix. Having baited consumers into believing that streaming, and not cable subscription, is the right way to go, Netflix has now decided to drop its own form of a bombshell on consumers in the form of price increment. The news, which was announced earlier this year, detailed that Netflix would be raising prices across all of its plans by 13 to 18 percent.